Radical White Supremacist Terrorism — Bias in American & Global coverage of violence & terrorist attacks
Since Donald Trump, Traditional Mainstream Media & Conservative Mainstream Media are interested in talking about terrorism, here are some examples of Radical White Supremacist terrorism that he never addresses.
2017 is over and it was an extremely divisive year. One of the common aspects that been used to divide is the characterization and presentation of terrorism in the US and globally. Incidences of terrorism and violence need to be addressed and dealt with to protect all against the evil that exist. Evil has no prima facie exemption to any specific population group, its evil without boundaries. We do however, have a unbalance in discussing and reporting on the different branches of terrorism. Coverage of terrorism by Arabic persons & persons of Color is vigorously discussed by Donald Trump, driven for ratings and energy by the Conservative Mainstream Media and reported on by the Traditional Mainstream Media. The terrorism that doesn’t get the equal share of coverage is radical White Supremacist/Right Wing Terrorism. Now Trump and the Conservative Mainstream Media dismiss terrorist activities committed by White people as just random acts of violence or effects of mental illness. They also try to limit comingling these acts with the terrorism definition, but if you look at two definitions of terrorism, it’s clear that these actions can and should be classified as terrorism
· Definition 1 — a terrorist is someone who unlawfully uses “violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims,” with no requirement of belonging to an organization, or acting on its behalf.
· Definition 2 — “Act of terrorism” means any act that involves the use or attempted use of sabotage, coercion or violence which is intended to:
(a) Cause great bodily harm or death to the general population; or
(b) Cause substantial destruction, contamination or impairment of:
(1) Any building or infrastructure, communications, transportation, utilities or services; or
(2) Any natural resource or the environment.
None of this is to cast a negative view on White Americans or White people globally. The rationale to examine the radicalization that lead to terrorism activities among these persons, so we can chart an action plan for addressing white radicalization and how to defuse these factors. In analyzing data from across different data sources, the umbrella term “right wing” is used to encompass militia movements, white supremacist groups , anti-government, anti-Muslim, anti-immigrant and anti-abortion extremists, including radical Christians, which would qualify as terrorism acts under definition 1. I have also added mass causality incident events as well, because they meet definition 2 and the offender expressed white radicalization theory or ideology. So, here is a list of the 19 Radical White Supremacist/Right Wing Terrorist events in 2017. I have a secondary list of Domestic Radical White Supremacist/Right Wing Terrorist events from 1995 to 2016:
1. JAN. 29, 2017 -LOCATION: QUEBEC, CANADA
Incident: Alexandre Bissonnette, a 27-year-old Canadian described by authorities as a “criminal extremist” inspired by extreme right-wing French nationalists, killed six people and wounded 19 others at an Islamic Cultural Center in Quebec City. The attack was cheered by far-right groups in Canada, and White House press secretary Sean Spicer said it was “a terrible reminder of why we must remain vigilant,” apparently citing the attack as justification for Trump’s U.S. travel ban on people from seven predominantly Muslim countries.
2. February 16, 2017 — South Carolina man with white supremacist ties planned a shooting ‘in the spirit of Dylann Roof’
Ex-convict and white supremacist Benjamin McDowell, 28, was arrested after buying a handgun and ammunition from an FBI agent for $109. McDowell had complained on facebook that fellow white supremacists were all talk and no action: “All they wanne (sic) do is stay loaded on drugs the Jews put here to destroy white man and they feast on the drugs. they should be Feasting on the enemy that stole their Heritage and their bloodline” he wrote, also citing Dylan Roof, the white mass murderer sentenced to death for the murder of a group of black churchgoers.
3. February 16, 2017 Marion County Convicted Felon Charged With Possession Of Destructive Devices
Mark Charles Barnett (48, Ocala, FL) was delivering 10 homemade bombs to a confidential source in a plot to place explosives in Target stores along the east coast, an act of economic terrorism designed to depress Target Stores stock. Barnett is a previously convicted felon and faces a maximum penalty of 10 years in federal prison.
4. February 22, 2017 — The 2017 shooting of three Indian men in a bar in Olathe Kansas (1 killed),
Adam Purinton, a white American man shot two Indian men, Srinivas Kuchibhotla and Alok Madasani, whom he had mistaken for Iranians, at a restaurant in Olathe, Kansas, killing Kuchibhotla. The attacker yelled, “get out of my country” and “terrorist” before firing. A third man, Ian Grillot, was wounded after he came to the two men’s aid. Several hours later a suspect was arrested in Clinton, Missouri.
5. March 20, 2017 — The 2017 stabbing of Timothy Caughman in New York City (1 killed),
Timothy Caughman, a black 66-year-old man, was collecting cans for recycling in Manhattan, New York City when James Harris Jackson, a white 28-year-old, allegedly approached him and stabbed him multiple times with a sword. Caughman later died of his injuries.
6. April 28, 2017 — The 2017 Transylvania University stabbing (0 killed)
Mitchell W. Adkins, 19, of Cincinnati has been charged with first-degree and fourth-degree assault, and three counts of wanton endangerment, according to police. Adkins is a former Transy undergraduate student who withdrew in 2015, Transylvania spokeswoman Michele Gaither Sparks said. The attacker walked into a coffee shop inside the Glenn Building on Friday morning, asked people their political affiliation, then went on the attack, one witness said. ‘You are safe,’ Transylvania attacker says to Republican student in coffee shop
7. May 20, 2017 — Member of “Alt-Reich Nation” Facebook Group Arrested in Murder of Black College Student — On Sunday, University of Maryland police chief David Mitchell announced that the FBI had been called on to assist in the investigation of the murder of black visiting student Richard Collins III as a hate crime. Mitchell’s suspected killer Sean Urbanski, who has been charged with first and second degree murder and first degree assault, is a member of a racist Facebook group called Alt-Reich Nation.
8. May 26, 2017 — The 2017 Portland train attack (2 killed). The man accused of the brutal hate crime slayings of two people at the Hollywood Transit Center on Friday afternoon is a known local white supremacist. Jeremy Joseph Christian “a known local white supremacist”, 35, was booked early Saturday morning on two aggravated murder charges, an attempted murder charge, two intimidation (hate crime) charges, and a felon in possession of a restricted weapon charge.
9. July 19, 2017 — Darren Osborne, a white, British, anti-Muslim terrorist who attacked a London mosque in June 2017, hitting worshippers with a van. A van ran down pedestrians on Seven Sisters Road in Finsbury Park, North London just after 12:20am on Monday morning. One man died and nine people were injured outside Finsbury Park Mosque as worshippers left a late evening prayer meeting. Police have confirmed they are treating the incident as a terror attack. A man, 47, was arrested at the scene and is being held on suspicion of attempted murder and terrorism offences. He reportedly screamed “kill me, kill all Muslims” as hero bystanders tackled him to the ground and was filmed blowing kisses from the back of the police van
10. August 5, 2017 — Minnesota Mosque Hit by Early-Morning Explosion
A blast caused by what the FBI called “an improvised explosive device” rocked a Bloomington Islamic center before dawn Saturday, just as a small group of Muslim worshipers had gathered for the day’s first round of prayers. No one was hurt in the explosion, which heavily damaged an imam’s office at the Dar Al Farooq Center and sent smoke wafting through the large building. Windows in the office were shattered, either by the blast or by an object thrown through them.
11. Aug. 12, 2017. A white supremacist named James Fields Jr. attending the “Unite the Right” rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, runs over and killing a 32-year old Heather Heyer, an anti-racism protester and injuring 19 others. Daniel Borden, 18, of Ohio, and Alex Michael Ramos, 33, of Georgia and Jacob Scott Goodwin, 22, of Ward, Arkansas, are allegedly three of at least five men who can be seen in online video footage pummeling DeAndre Harris, a 20-year-old former special education instruction assistant, inside a parking garage after the Aug. 12 rally. The footage shows a man identified by police as Goodwin, clad in a tactical military helmet and carrying a large plastic shield, kicking Harris on the ground. At one point, Goodwin appears to hit Harris with his shield. The attack on Harris, viewed tens of thousands of times on YouTube, has become a symbol of the violence and racial enmity that engulfed Charlottesville when white supremacists, Klan members and neo-Nazis clashed with counterprotesters.
12. October 1, 2017 — Las Vegas Terrorist Shooting a man opened fire on the crowd of more than 22,000 people at a country music festival outside the Mandalay Bay hotel in Las Vegas, killing at least 58 people and injuring over 500. The attacker, who later killed himself, has been identified as Stephen Craig Paddock, 64-year-old white man from Nevada.
13. OCTOBER 20, 2017 — Three charged in shooting after white nationalist’s Florida speech.
A Texas man who shot at protesters after a white nationalist’s speech at the University of Florida and two brothers who urged him to “kill them” have been charged with attempted homicide, police said on Friday (Tyler Tenbrink, 28, and William and Colton Fears, 30 and 28). No one was injured in the shooting incident, which occurred on Thursday near the campus in Gainesville where hundreds of people protested Richard Spencer’s speech amid a heavy police presence and a preemptive state of emergency declaration by the governor.
14. October 22, 2017 WHITE SUPREMACIST ACCUSED OF AMTRAK TERROR ATTACK ALSO ATTENDED ALT-RIGHT EVENT IN CHARLOTTESVILLE, FBI SAYS
The 26-year-old white supremacist from St. Charles, Missouri, allegedly breached a secure area of an Amtrak train on Oct. 22 while armed with a gun and plenty of backup ammunition. He set off the emergency brake, sending passengers lunging as the train cars went “completely black.” St. Charles, Missouri, resident Taylor Michael Wilson has been charged with an attempt to commit terror by targeting an Amtrak train in southwest Nebraska in October 2017. Wilson also attended the doomed Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, last August on the white supremacist side, according to a court document. FBI Special Agent Monte Czaplewski, writing in an affidavit attached to the criminal complaint, suggested that Wilson wanted to murder black people. The document suggests that he had weapons, as well as a National Socialist Movement (NSM) business card with him at the time he was arrested. “Upon removing the panel agents discovered a large amount of evidence to include a tactical vest, 11 AR-15 (rifle) ammunition magazines with approximately 190 rounds of .223 ammunition, one drum-style ammunition magazine for a rifle, firearms tactical accessories (lights), 100 rounds of 9mm ammunition, approximately 840 rounds of 5.45x39 rifle ammunition, white supremacy documents and paperwork, several additional handgun and rifle magazines, gunpowder, ammunition reloading supplies, and a pressure plate. Also located in the compartment was a hand-made shield.”
15. November 1, 2017 — Walmart Shooting in Thornton, Colorado: Suspect Scott Ostrem Is Arrested
The suspect, identified as 47-year-old Scott Ostrem, was taken into custody this morning, according to the Thornton Police Department. Two men and one woman were killed in the shooting. The victims are Denver residents Pamela Marques, 52, and Victor Vasquez, 26, and Thornton resident Carlos Moreno, 66, according to the Adams-Broomfield County coroner.
On November 1, 2017, police say Scott Allen Ostrem, a 47-year-old white man, nonchalantly walked into a Walmart in Thornton, Colorado, armed with a handgun. Once inside the store, Ostrem pulled out the gun and shot three Hispanic shoppers who were singled out of many other customers. The gunman then fled the scene in a red Mitsubishi subcompact car. In the days following the shooting, Ostrem’s apparent motive became abundantly clear. It looks to be a hate-motivated bias-crime, a targeted shooting attack against Hispanics. Former neighbors and others came forward to the media describing Ostrem as hostile and racist toward Hispanics. KKTV reported that neighbors described Ostrem as “very racist towards Hispanics.” Another person described him as “verbally abusive towards Hispanics,” according to NBC News. A third neighbor, Gerald Burnett, said Ostrem once told him “This is America. You shouldn’t be here.” Further, a Hispanic employee at Ostrem’s apartment building, who didn’t want to be identified, said Ostrem was very rude to them. “If he saw a Hispanic person, he would tell them to get out of his way,” he said.
16. Nov. 6, 2017 — Texas authorities said Monday that it is not investigating the Sutherland Springs, Texas, church shooting as terrorism after more than two dozen were killed Sunday.
SUTHERLAND SPRINGS, Texas — A lone gunman’s gruesome assault on a rural church that killed 26 people and wounded 20 more appears to have stemmed from a domestic dispute, authorities said Monday. The Texas Department of Public Safety on Monday identified the shooter as Devin Kelley, 26, of New Braunfels. DPS official Freeman Martin said Kelley’s mother-in-law had previously attended services at the First Baptist Church but was not there during Sunday’s bloodbath, the deadliest mass shooting in Texas history.
17. December 14, 2017 New Mexico School Shooter Had Secret Life on Pro-Trump White-Supremacy Sites — For years before William Edward Atchison killed two students and himself, he lived a shadow life online — one full of crude alt-right memes and praise for school shooters.
In real life, William Edward Atchison — people called him Bill — lived in a little yellow house with his parents, about a mile away from the Giant gas station where he worked and from Aztec High School, where he shot and killed two students and then himself last Thursday.
18. December 22, 2017 Nicholas Giampa, a 17-year-old Virginia boy, allegedly murdered his girlfriend’s parents, Scott Fricker and Buckley Kuhn Fricker, in a shooting incident that took place. On Dec. 22, police say Giampa sneaked into his girlfriend’s house in Reston, Virginia, and shot Kuhn-Fricker and Fricker dead, then turned the gun on himself. He had a neo-Nazi social media presence, according to a report by The Huffington Post. On Twitter, Nicholas Giampa wrote about race war, convincing transgender people to kill themselves, and using Jews as target practice.
19. December 31 2017 — The man suspected of shooting several Douglas County Sheriff’s deputies, killing one, had a Facebook page filled with images associated with the alt-right.
HIGHLANDS RANCH, Colo. — A gunman shot and killed a deputy, and wounded three other deputies, a police officer and two civilians at an apartment complex in an ambush-type of attack early Sunday morning, the Douglas County Sheriff’s Office said.
About 5:15 a.m., deputies responded for the second time in two hours to the Copper Canyon Apartments complex at 3404 E. County Line Road in Highlands Ranch, between Colorado and University boulevards. A man had left the apartment before deputies arrived, but returned, and gave a key and permission to enter the unit, the sheriff’s office said.
About 5:55 a.m., four deputies were hit by rifle rounds from the suspect’s bedroom, the sheriff’s office said. The sheriff’s office identified 37-year-old Matthew Riehl as the man who shot the four deputies, a SWAT police officer and two civilians as they responded to a noise complaint at the apartment in Highlands Ranch.
High-profile examples of white extremist violence in the United States since Timothy McVeigh killed 168 people in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995 through December 31, 2016.
1. Oct. 9, 1995. An Amtrak employee is killed when a train derails near Hyder, Arizona because the track it’s traveling on has been sabotaged. The perpetrators are never found, but anti-law enforcement propaganda messages from the “Sons of Gestapo” are found near the scene.
2. April 12, 1996. A neo-Nazi named Larry Wayne Shoemake, who is found to have owned at least 22 firearms and an estimated 20,000 rounds of ammunition, kills a black man in a random Jackson, Mississippi attack.
3. July 27, 1996. A bomb set by Eric Robert Rudolph, who is affiliated with the “Christian Identity” fundamentalist movement, kills one person at the Atlanta Olympics.
4. Jan. 29, 1998. Another bomb set by Rudolph kills a man at a Birmingham abortion clinic.
5. May 29, 1998. Three militia sympathizers named Alan Pilon, Robert Mason and Jason McVean fire 29 shots at a Cortez, Colorado police officer who is trying to apprehend them because they’ve stolen a water truck, killing him. The three evade capture but are believed to ultimately have died in the desert wilderness surrounding the crime scene.
6. July 4, 1998. Several neo-Nazis murdered anti-racism activists Lin Newborn and Daniel Shersty in an ambush attack in the Las Vegas area.
7. Oct. 23, 1998. With his wife and children nearby, an abortion provider in Amherst, New York is shot and killed through the window of his home by James Charles Kopp.
8. July 1, 1999. Brothers Benjamin Matthew Williams and James Tyler Williams, who also have connections to the “Christian Identity” movement, kill a gay couple in Redding, California.
9. July 2–July 5 1999. Neo-Nazi Benjamin Nathaniel Smith kills black basketball coach Ricky Byrdsong and and a Korean graduate student and wounds nine other non-white victims in a three-day shooting spree.
10. Aug. 10, 1999. Neo-Nazi Buford Furrow kills a Filipino immigrant after firing 70 shots inside a Jewish community center near Los Angeles.
11. April 28, 2000. An unemployed immigration attorney named Richard Baumhammers who believes “non-white immigration” should be banned shoots and kills five people in the Pittsburgh area.
12. Sept. 15–Oct. 4, 2001. Mark Stroman, a lifelong criminal with connections to the Aryan Brotherhood, shoots three South Asian men in the Dallas area — killing two — in what he describes as revenge for 9/11.
13. Dec. 8, 2003. Steven Bixby kills two police officers in Abbeville, South Carolina during a dispute over the state’s decision to use a 20-foot strip of the Bixbys’ land to widen a highway.
14. May 24, 2004. Wade and Christopher Lay, a father-son pair obsessed with the 1993 government siege of the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, kill a bank security guard in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
15. July 27, 2008. Jim David Adkisson shoots and kills two people during a childrens’ performance of a musical at a Unitarian Univeralist church in Knoxville, Tennessee, telling police that he intended to target individuals who had voted for liberals and Democrats.
16. Jan. 21, 2009. Neo-Nazi Keith Luke rapes and kills an immigrant from Cape Verde in Brockton, Massachusetts, then kills a 72-year-old homeless immigrant.
17. Feb. 26, 2009, Miramar Beach, Florida: Dannie Baker, a former Republican Party volunteer who believed that “Washington D.C. Dictators” wanted to “overthrow us with foreign illegals,” opens fire on a roomful of Chilean foreign-exchange students, killing two and injuring three.
18. April 4, 2009. Richard Andrew Poplawski, a frequent poster on the white supremacist Stormfront website who apparently believes a national “gun ban” is imminent, kills three Pittsburgh police officers.
19. April 25, 2009. Joshua Cartwright kills two Okaloosa County, Florida sheriff’s deputies. Per a police report, Cartwright’s wife says he was paranoid about the U.S. government and “extremely disturbed” by Barack Obama’s election.
20. May 30, 2009. Shawna Forde, Albert Gaxiola, and Jason Bush kill a Latino man and his nine-year-old daughter in Arivaca, Arizona during a robbery intended to raise funds for the “Minutemen American Defense” group.
21. May 31, 2009. Scott Roeder kills Dr. George Tiller, an abortion provider, in the Wichita, Kansas Lutheran church where Tiller serves as an usher.
22. June 10, 2009. An 89-year-old white supremacist named James von Brunn kills a security guard at the Holocaust Museum in Washington D.C. from point-blank range.
23. Feb. 18, 2010. Joseph Andrew Stack flies a plane into an Austin, Texas IRS office, killing one person.
24. May 20, 2010. A father-son pair named Jerry and Joseph Kane (who conduct “seminars” about how “sovereign citizens” can evade debt) kill two West Memphis, Arkansas police officers.
25. Nov. 28, 2010 less than two days after the Christmas tree sting, another Oregon youth, Cody Seth Crawford, then 24, launched a homemade firebomb into the offices of the Salman Alfarisi Islamic Center in Corvallis, Oregon, a mosque where Mohamud sometimes prayed. The bomb caused thousands of dollars’ worth of damage, though no injuries.
26. Jan. 18, 2011, Spokane, Washington: Neo-Nazi Kevin William Harpham plants a backpack bomb along the route of a Martin Luther King Day Jr. Day parade; no one is injured because it is spotted and defused.
27. Sept. 26–Oct. 3, 2011. Avowed white supremacists David Joseph Pedersen and Holly Ann Grigsby kill Pedersen’s father and stepmother in Washington, a man they believe is Jewish in Oregon, and a black man in California.*
28. December 18, 2011, Eli Franklin Myers, an anti-government survivalist, shot two police officers, killing one, before being shot dead by state troopers in the small town of Webster.
29. Aug. 5, 2012. A white supremacist named Wade Michael Page kills six people at a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin.
30. Aug. 16, 2012. “Sovereign citizen”-movement adherents Brian Smith and Kyle Joekel, who are now awaiting trial, allegedly kill two Louisiana sheriff’s deputies in a trailer-park ambush.
31. Sept. 4, 2012. Christopher Lacy, a software engineer who lives in a rural trailer and apparently sympathizes with the “sovereign citizen” movement, shoots a California Highway Patrol officer who dies the next day.
32. APRIL 13, 2014 — LOCATION: KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI
Incident: Frazier Glenn Cross, a former Ku Klux Klan leader, opened fire on two Jewish sites in a Kansas City suburb on Passover eve, killing a doctor and his 14-year-old grandson and a third woman. Cross shouted “Heil Hitler” as he was taken into custody.
33. April 13, 2014. Frazier Glenn Miller, a 73-year-old with a long history of KKK activity, kills three people in the area of a Jewish community center and Jewish retirement community in Overland Park, Kansas.
34. JUNE 4, 2014 — LOCATION: NEW BRUNSWICK, CANADA
Incident: Justin Bourque, a 24-year-old from Moncton, Canada, shot five officers from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, killing three and severely injuring two. He was captured after a 10-week manhunt. Bourque posted pro-gun and anti-police slogans on Facebook, and said he feared Russia would invade Canada in a third world war.
35. June 8, 2014. Jerad and Amanda Miller kill two police officers in a random attack at a pizza restaurant in Las Vegas, then kill a customer at a Walmart. The Millers had spent time on Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy’s property during protests related to Bundy’s dispute with the federal government.
36. July 2014 police discovered that Eric Charles Smith, who ran a white supremacist church out of his home in the borough of Baldwin, had built a stockpile of some 20 homemade bombs.
37. Sept. 12, 2014. Eric Frein allegedly shoots and kills a Pennsylvania state trooper; he’s caught 48 days later after hiding from authorities in “survivalist” fashion in a rural area.
38. NOV. 28, 2014 — LOCATION: AUSTIN, TEXAS
Incident: Larry Steve McQuilliams, armed with a .22 caliber rifle, fired more than 100 rounds at government buildings in downtown Austin, including a police station, a Mexican consulate, a federal courthouse, and a bank. He tried to set the consulate on fire before he was shot dead by police. There were no fatalities. Police searched his rental van and found homemade bombs made from propane cans, a map containing 34 targets, and a white supremacist book called “Vigilantes of Christendom.” Police characterized McQuilliams as a “homegrown American terrorist trying to terrorize our people.”
39. JUNE 23, 2015 — LOCATION: CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA
Incident: Dylann Roof, a self-avowed white supremacist, walked into the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, a historically black church, and joined bible study. After an hour, as congregants had their heads bowed in prayer, Roof opened fire, killing nine black churchgoers. Roof’s website, “The Last Rhodesian,” featured photos of him posing with neo-Nazi and white supremacist symbols and a manifesto, in which he expressed his racist views towards African-Americans.
40. JULY 23, 2015 — LOCATION: LAFAYETTE, LOUISIANA
Incident: John Russell Houser opened fire at a movie theatre during a showing of “Trainwreck,” a film starring the comedian Amy Schumer. He killed two women, ages 21 and 33, and injured nine others before committing suicide. Houser espoused extremist right-wing views and was reportedly an ardent anti-feminist.
41. NOV. 27, 2015 — LOCATION: COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO
Incident: Robert Louis Dear, a 57-year-old Colorado man, attacked a Planned Parenthood clinic in Colorado Springs. Armed with four assault rifles and other weapons, Dear killed three people and injured nine others. According to court documents, Dear told investigators that he hoped he would be met in heaven “by aborted fetuses thanking him for saving unborn babies.” He said he was driven to action by false allegations that Planned Parenthood clinics sell baby parts. Dear also characterized members of the “Army of God,” a group of anti-abortion extremists behind other attacks on abortion clinics, as “heroes.”
42. NOV. 30, 2015 — Four Charged in Shooting of Minneapolis Protesters — MINNEAPOLIS — A white man accused of shooting five Black Lives Matter protesters in Minneapolis apparently had racist views and identified with the antigovernment “sovereign citizen” movement, according to criminal complaints filed Monday charging him in the shooting. Three others were charged with related crimes. The man, Allen L. Scarsella, 23, fired all eight shots on Nov. 23 with a .45-caliber handgun, but his companions were also armed when they went to the demonstration, intending to set off a confrontation, the documents said. The others charged were Nathan W. Gustavsson, 21, and Joseph M. Backman, 27, both described as white, and Daniel T. Macey, 26, described as Asian-American. A state district judge in Minneapolis, Amy Dawson, set bail at $250,000 for each of them, and at $500,000 for Mr. Scarsella. Prosecutors charged him with five counts of second-degree assault with a dangerous weapon causing substantial bodily harm, each punishable by up to 10 years in prison and a fine of up to $20,000. All four men were charged with second-degree riot while armed with a dangerous weapon, punishable by up to five years and $10,000.
43. East Kingdom, New Hampshire, January 2016: An FBI sting operation resulted in the arrest of Daniel Musso and his indictment on four counts of receiving and possessing unregistered explosive devices (grenades). Musso allegedly was attempting to find someone to sell him grenades, shoulder-fired rockets, and C-4 explosives, among other items. Musso allegedly bought four grenades from an undercover informant, describing himself as part of a group of people who wanted to “bring forth the original constitution.” As of this writing, Musso seems to still be awaiting trial.
44. Columbus, Ohio, April 2016: Sovereign citizens Alphonso D. Mobley, Jr., and Roberto M. Innis, Jr., were arrested after Mobley blew his own hands off while allegedly making the deadly explosive TATP. Authorities claimed that the two planned to set off a bomb as a diversion while they carried out a bank or armored car robbery. They were charged with aggravated arson and criminal use, possession and illegal assembly of a chemical weapon. In early 2017, Innis pleaded guilty to aggravated arson and criminal use of an explosive device.
45. Stockton, Utah, June 2016: Militia leader William Keebler of Stockton, Utah, was arrested in June 2016 after allegedly attempting to set off a bomb at a Bureau of Land Management facility in Arizona. Keebler had allegedly scouted the facility in October 2015 along with LaVoy Finicum, who a few months later would become a ringleader in the armed takeover of a federal wildlife refuge in Oregon — and be killed by law enforcement officers attempting to arrest him. Keebler also allegedly scouted a mosque, an FBI office and an Army National Guard building as possible targets. He allegedly attempted to obtain two bombs for his plot from someone who turned out to be an undercover FBI agent. He was charged with one count of attempted damage to a federal facility by means of fire or explosive.
46. Aug. 10, 2016. A 38-year-old Oregon man with connections to a white supremacist prison gang drove over and killed a 19-year-old black man after a sidewalk altercation in what authorities are prosecuting as a hate crime.
47. Oct. 14, 2016, Garden City, Kansas: Three Kansas militia members, Curtis Allen, Gavin Wright and Patrick Stein, are arrested for allegedly plotting to bomb an apartment complex, home to Somali immigrants. According to the FBI, which infiltrated the group, they called Muslims “cockroaches” and hoped to inspire other militia members.
48. Earlton, New York, October 2016: In a “sting” operation, FBI agents arrested militia adherent Robert Twiss of Earlton, New York, on a charge of unlawful possession of a rifle by a felon. The investigation began after the FBI allegedly learned that Twiss was forming a militia group with possible plans to engage in violence. During the investigation, the FBI allegedly learned that Twiss spoke of actions such as firebombing the FBI office in Albany and attacking the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Twiss also allegedly boasted about his ability to turn a propane tank into an explosive device and said that he was “extremely dangerous.” During the investigation, the FBI learned that Twiss, a convicted felon, had an M-1 rifle in his possession (felons are not normally permitted to own firearms) and arrested him on that basis.